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Trusted Academic Service**Sir Isaac Newton****,** (born December 25, 1642 [January 4, 1643, New Style]. Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire. England —died March 20 [March 31], 1727. London ), English physicist and mathematician, who was the culminating figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century. In optics. his discovery of the composition of white light integrated the phenomena of colours into the science of light and laid the foundation for modern physical optics. In mechanics. his three laws of motion. the basic principles of modern physics. resulted in the formulation of the law of universal gravitation. In mathematics. he was the original discoverer of the infinitesimal calculus. Newton’s *Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica* (*Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy*. 1687) was one of the most important single works in the history of modern science.

Sir Isaac Newton’s formulation of the law of universal gravitation.

Isaac Newton, portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1689.

Articles from Britannica encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.

Isaac Newton was one of the great figures in the history of science. His ideas about motion and gravity are very important to the science of physics.

(1642-1727). The chief figure of the scientific revolution of the 17th century was Sir Isaac Newton. He was a physicist and mathematician who laid the foundations of calculus and extended the understanding of color and light. He also studied the mechanics of planetary orbits, formulated three fundamental laws of motion, and developed the law of gravitation, thus founding what is now known as classical mechanics. His work established the commonly held scientific view of the world until Albert Einstein published his theories of relativity in the early 20th century.

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