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Harvard referencing quotes in essays

This page is an introduction to citation standards and referencing. Advice is offered on the two most commonly used systems, Harvard (alphabetical / author, date) and Vancouver (numerical). For help and guidance with other citation standards please contact your College Librarian .

Student Learning Services do offer workshops on topics including referencing and citation styles. Individual University subject areas also provide guidance on their preferred citation style, usually within Moodle. If you are unsure where to find local subject help your lecturers should be able to advise.

Endnote - Bibliographic software package which enables you to record and store references to cases, books or journal articles - with additional options such as the facility to generate bibliographies.

It is important to keep a exact and complete record of the details of all the sources of information that you use for coursework, essays,dissertations and other work. Sources can include books, book chapters, journal articles, web pages and cases for example. If you don’t keep a precise record you will have difficulty (and a lot more work) when you need to list the sources in your reference list or bibliography.

When writing an essay, report or dissertation, it is usual to make reference to, or cite, the sources that you used, referred to, or took quotes from. These references might be from journal or newspaper articles, books or book chapters, government reports, internet publications etc. Citing accurate references is important for the following reasons:

  • To give credit to other author’s concepts & ideas
  • To provide the reader with evidence of the extent of your reading
  • To allow the reader to locate the cited references easily
  • More seriously, it is vital to avoid being accused of plagiarism

When you refer to, or directly quote from, someone else’s work you must refer to the author / editor in the text and provide a full reference to the source in the reference list or bibliography. There are many systems for the citation of references, and you should follow the system preferred by your College or Department. Refer to your course handbook or speak to your supervisor for advice on what system to use. The most commonly used systems are Harvard (known as alphabetical or author, date system) and Vancouver (known as numerical system).

Example of how to cite your source within your text, supported with evidence of the source.

  • Corbetta (2003, p.307) argues that institutional documentary evidence represents an
    “irreplaceable source of empirical material for the study of contemporary society.”
  • Corbetta [1] argues that institutional documentary evidence represents an “irreplaceable source of empirical material for the study of contemporary society.”

The list of sources you have used is normally located at the end of your document. There are many systems for the citation of references, the most commonly used being the Harvard [author/date] and Vancouver [numbered] styles.

  • Corbetta, P. (2003) Social research: theory, methods and techniques. London, Sage.
  • Jude, E. and Boulton, A.J.M. (1999) End stage complications of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Review, 7, pp.395-410.
  • Corbetta, P. Social research: theory, methods and techniques. London. Sage. 2003.

To find out how to cite other types of publication or electronic sources see detailed guides to Harvard or Vancouver.

You must always acknowledge the sources you use. Use of material without acknowledgement of the sources is called plagiarism which is considered to be an act of fraudulence and an offence against University discipline. More information on Plagiarism can be found on the Student Learning service website .

In the Harvard system, references are listed alphabetically by author/date in the bibliography and cited in the body of the text so there is no third place to look such as footnotes and chapter references, which are features of other systems.

Harvard System of Referencing - guide from Anglia Ruskin University Library

In the Vancouver Style, a number is assigned to each reference as it is used. Even if the author is named in your text, a number must still be used. The original number assigned to the reference is used each time that reference is cited in the text. The first reference you cite will be numbered 1 in the text, and the second reference you cite will be numbered 2, and so on. If you cite reference number 1 again later in the text, you will cite it using the number 1. References are listed in numerical order in a bibliography at the end of your essay

When writing for publication you need to refer to the specific conventions used by the journal/s to which you are submitting your paper. These are usually provided when you are commissioned to write a paper and can be obtained on the journal’s website or by contacting the editor.

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