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Persuasive essays on anthrax



Pathogenesis of Anthrax - Missing Works Cited There are two main factors that are important for an anthrax infection: bacterial proliferation (growth) and invasion of organ systems and the “…cytotoxic effect of anthrax toxin, with eventual organ failure and death” (Karginov). The first factor occurs once the host has been infected. This infection will never be reached if it were not for a very important characteristic of the bacterium: its ability to form spores. Sporulation occurs in the soil and on culture media but “…not in living tissue, unless exposed to air” (Sakarya). [tags: Anthrax]

General Information about Anthrax - Missing Works Cited The disease Anthrax derives its name from the Greek word anthracis, which means “coal”. This name is in response to the “characteristic black, coal-like central regions located on the anthrax skin lesions…” that appear in the cutaneous (tissue) form of the disease (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)). Although the 2001 letter attacks brought it widespread attention, anthrax has been around throughout history in many different areas. For example, the fifth and/or sixth plagues of Egypt that occurred during the time of Moses (1250 B.C.) are thought to represent the “earliest historical reports of the disease, due to the systemic and cutaneous forms of the dis. [tags: Anthrax]

Bioterrorism with Anthrax - Missing Works Cited BIOTERRORISM Anthrax is one of the most preferred biological warfare agents for many highly identified reasons. First, anthrax is extremely lethal. Anthrax can contain up to 100 million lethal doses in just one gram of anthrax spores, which is 100,000 times more lethal than any other biological warfare agent. It is also known that inhalation anthrax is almost always fatal if the symptoms are allowed to progress without any treatment. Anthrax is also the silent and invisible killer. [tags: Anthrax Biology Biological Terrorism]

Anthrax Prevention - Missing Works Cited Aside from treatments of the disease, there is also another way to fight anthrax: an anthrax vaccine. For some time now, a vaccine to protect animals from anthrax has been available. It wasn’t until “…1970, when a human vaccine was licensed called Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA)” (Joellenbeck). It was licensed for workers at high risk for occupational exposure to anthrax. The vaccine is “…a cell-free filtrate containing protective antigen as the principal immunogen” (Joellenbeck). [tags: Anthrax Vaccine]

The Anthrax Threat - The Anthrax Threat Today's US military personnel around the world face a new threat: Biological weapons. To protect the US troops against Biological weapons; the Department of Defense implemented a mandatory vaccination program against anthrax. This was justified to counter an increasing threat from hostile countries and possible terrorist groups that now or in the future will likely possess the capability of fielding weaponized anthrax spores as a Biological Weapon. This decision has resulted in court-martials and disciplinary hearings among U.S. [tags: Papers]

Anthrax in Bioterrorism - Anthrax in Bioterrorism As America rises shakily to its feet after September 11th, a man from American Media Inc. breathes in a funny powder from a letter in his office. Five days later he ís in the hospital, an apparent severe case of the flu. Two days later, he dies. This man was Bob Stevens, the first in America to die from a deliberate anthrax attack. Others letters such as this started popping up in major American media companies [Tom Brokaw at NBC], making the nation terrified to open mail. [tags: Biological Terrorism Terrorist Attack]

Anthrax - 1. The anthrax bacillus is considered the first "germ" proved to cause human disease. In 2001, Anthrax was deliberately spread through the postal system by sending letters with powder containing anthrax. This caused 22 cases of anthrax infection. 2. Anthrax is a serious disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a bacterium that forms spores. There are three types of anthrax: skin (cutaneous) lungs (inhalation) digestive (gastrointestinal) 3. Anthrax is not known to spread from one person to another. [tags: essays research papers]

Anthrax - Anthrax is a very real and dangerous threat to all people who come in contact with it. The bacterial infection is caused by the bacteriaium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is divided into three categories all are contracted in different ways. The first type is called Cutaneous Anthrax; this is where anthrax spores make contact with the skin. If there is a cut or a lesion then a person can be infected. Cutaneous Anthrax is the most common way to get anthrax, but is also the least lethal. The second type of anthrax is called Pulmonary Anthrax this is where a person inhales the spores of anthrax directly into the lungs. [tags: essays research papers]

Anthrax - Anthrax is the preferred biological warfare agent because: It is highly lethal. 100 million lethal doses per gram of anthrax material (100,000 times deadlier than the deadliest chemical warfare agent). Silent, invisible killer. Inhalational anthrax is virtually always fatal. There are low barriers to production. Low cost of producing the anthrax material. Not high-technology. Knowledge is widely available. Easy to produce in large quantities. It is easy to weaponize. It is extremely stable. It can be stored almost indefinitely as a dry powder. [tags: essays research papers]

The Threat of Chemical Warfare with Anthrax - The Threat of Chemical Warfare with Anthrax Hell is a place on earth and it is located 2300 miles south of Moscow in the middle of the Aral Sea. Its name is Vokroshdeniye Island. In English this means Renaissance Island. Renaissance Island was a Soviet Union biochemical test sight before its fall in 1990. They where testing such things as small pox, the plague, and most importantly anthrax. The Islands main mission was to develop a strain of the diseases that could be put into the warheads of SS-18 an intercontinental bolistic missile, to be pointed at American cities. [tags: Papers]

Anthrax - Anthrax Many Facilities in communities around the country have received anthrax threat letters. Most were empty envelopes. Some have contained powder substances. Anthrax has been linked back to the fifth and sixth plaques of Egypt around 1500 BC. In the early 1700s it first appeared in North America in Louisiana. In Kentucky at about 1824 cutaneous anthrax appeared among cowboys on cattle ranches. Germany, Russia, and Japan conducted extensive research toward the use of anthrax as a biological weapon in the 1930s. [tags: Papers]

anthrax - Could someone use anthrax for a larger attack on American cities. Unfortunately, yes-and they could also use any of a series of other germs, some more lethal than anthrax. But it’s not easy to get anthrax, and it’s not easy to deploy. The Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo tried to spread anthrax from its Tokyo office building in 1993 and failed dismally. Experts disagree on how dangerous it would be if someone sprinkled anthrax in, say, an office ventilation system or a subway car, but any larger attack would be hard to pull off. [tags: essays research papers]

Anthrax - The germ warfare agent anthrax is a bacterium that, if inhaled, can kill a person in a matter of days. It sounds like science fiction, like something a mad scientist developed in a lab in hopes of taking over the world. In reality is an ancient disease of live stock and humans known since Biblical times. It just never made so many headlines before. Anthrax is an infectious disease known as Bacillus Anthracis. The bacterium can survive for centuries in a spore form. Their inside coating of armor allows the bacteria to exist in the soil or float about in the air until it finds a host to infect. [tags: essays research papers]

Anthrax - Anthrax Vaccine: Safe and Effective, or Not. Intro: The Anthrax vaccine is a mandatory shot for military; while some people are willing to take the shot to save their lives, others believe if they take it, it will ruin theirs. I. The Anthrax Disease A. Anthrax is a bacterial infection caused by Bacillus Anthracis. 1. It primarily affects livestock, but can occasionally spread humans. a. The infection can be treated, but is almost always fatal. 2. The bacterium produces spores that lay dormant for years in soil and on animal products. [tags: essays research papers]

Anthrax Vaccination - The anthrax vaccination is the only known defense available for United States Troops against the deadly anthrax virus. Many experts have said it is not effective against inhalation anthrax. Studies have not been conclusive in their findings. The chance of living if you have received the anthrax vaccination seems better. More studies should be conducted outside the Department of Defense, with their cooperation, before the process to vaccinate troops continues. Anthrax is a disease normally associated with plant eating animals (sheep, goats, and cattle) caused by the bacterium Bacillius anthracis. [tags: essays research papers]

Military Anthrax Vaccination - Since the end of the Persian Gulf War, the United States along with the United Nations has struggled with Saddam Hussein to locate his “weapons of mass destruction”. Saddam’s persistence and dubious manner towards the United States military has raised concern for military protection. To combat biological threats, Secretary of Defense William Cohen implemented a mandatory military wide vaccination of all military members. Since the inception of the program, the program has been the subject of criticism by military members, Veteran Associations, Doctors, and many Senators on Capital Hill. [tags: Papers]

Steven Hatfill: Innocent, Yet Accused - The most devastating result of the 2001 anthrax attacks is the lack of consequences for those persons responsible. There has not been enough evidence discovered or presented by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI, to adequately declare exactly who is responsible for the anthrax attacks. Regardless, there has been great speculation around a man named Steven Hatfill, and a large portion of the American society has placed the blame for the attacks on his shoulders. By dispelling contradictory proof, dissecting evidence, and examining other possible solutions, Steven Hatfill can be proven innocent of any links to the 2001 anthrax attacks. [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Anthrax]

Preparing for a Biological Terror Attack - What is Anthrax and how is it transmitted. Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming "bacterium bacillus." Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, camels, antelopes, and other herbivores), but can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or when spores are used as a bioterrorist weapon. There are three forms of Anthrax. One form of Anthrax is gastrointestinal anthrax, which usually occurs after the consumption of contaminated meat that has been infected with the anthrax bacterium. [tags: Informative Essays]

The Threats of Biological Warfare - The term “biological warfare” has been used quite frequently lately. We see it on the news, read it in magazines and newspapers, and hear about it in the political rhetoric of the day. However, the sad reality is that most Americans are not well informed about how dangerous the threat of biological warfare really is. Not only that, but our own government is not even prepared to deal with a biological attack, something that is more probable than most of us would like to believe. Biological warfare is not all that complicated. [tags: Biological Warfare War Weapons Essays]

The Dangers of Bioterrorism - The Dangers of Bioterrorism Anthrax, an infectious and usually fatal disease of warm-blooded animals, particularly sheep, goats, and other ruminants, that can on occasion, be transmitted to humans. Human-to-human spread generally does not occur. By common usage, anthrax also refers to the causative agent, Bacillus anthracis. This bacterium is present in soil worldwide. Anthrax is a well suited as a bioweapon because it is capable of forming hardy spores that can remain stable for decades. The deadliest form of this disease occurs when the spores are inhaled and germinate in the lungs. [tags: Papers]

A Critical Study of Media Reaction to September 11 - September 11, 2001: A DAY OF INFAMY. So it was vehemently proclaimed in Time Magazine¹s special issue dedicated to one of the most tragic events in American History and arguably one of the most brutal acts of terrorism to date. America, in the spasms of a few hours, has become a changed country. Perhaps in an attempt to understand this change and come to grips with the ensuing crisis, more and more people are turning to the media for answers. Now more than ever, the media, namely television, radio, newspapers, and the internet, have become the most powerful tools in disseminating information relevant to this event. This is a truth we cannot escape. It would of course be naïve. [tags: September 11 Terrorism Essays]

Comparison of Newspaper Articles - Comparison of Newspaper Articles I have chosen two articles about the same story from two contrasting newspapers, one a tabloid and one a broadsheet. The tabloid I have chosen is The Mirror and the broadsheet is The Times. Both articles are taken from the papers of Tuesday 22nd October 2001. They cover the story about the outbreak of Anthrax in Washington DC where two postal workers died. I think the Mirror is aimed at people who do not want to read the news in great detail and just want to know the essential facts. [tags: Papers]

The Contribution of Science to Advancement to the Cause of Disease in Nineteenth Century - The Contribution of Science to Advancement to the Cause of Disease in Nineteenth Century The evolving level of scientific knowledge was a major contributing factor to the advancement of causes of disease. The first step to the advancement of the causes of disease was the discovery of micro-organisms. If we go back to the late 1600's, a Dutch clockmaker by the named of Anthony van Leeuwenhoek made one of the first microscopes. His microscopes were not very clear and the image clarity was poor, but he still studied anything he could find. [tags: Papers]

The Real Deal Out In The Field - The Real Deal Out in the Field Being that this will be a very opinionated paper I concluded that I should begin this piece with an opinion. According to myself, there is no such thing as a just war. War is war no matter how much you try to justify it. You can’t escape the fact that with war comes loss of life. This brings up the idea of “who are we to eliminate someone’s life.” No man should have such responsibility. Naturally those that cause war or instigate war are those that will not be fighting in the trenches. [tags: essays research papers]

The Funding of Making Chemical and Biological Weapons - The Funding of Making Chemical and Biological Weapons Will the human race still be in existence in fifty more years. Although likely, there is a very real possibility that we will not be here. For example, after the Gulf War, we found Saddam Hussein stockpiling Weapons of Mass Destruction. Did you know that he had enough weapons to kill every single human, dog, and cow on the face of the earth. When I found that out, I thought it was very interesting, so I decided to do a report on it. If you keep reading, you’ll find out what I’ve found out. [tags: Chemical Biological Weapons War Essays]

Louis Pasteur: An Amazing Chemist -. Pasteur proved this as he boiled broth in a flask with a curved neck. He let the flask sit there for a year or so, and found that there still were not any microorganisms in the broth. Then, he broke off the curved neck of the flask and the broth eventually became full of microorganisms, bacteria, and germs. Louis Pasteur made several discoveries that have been very beneficial for the common people. Louis Pasteur discovered that milk soured from fermentation and that he could prevent it with Pasteurization. [tags: Cure, Scientist, Nobel Prize]

Bioweapons - Imagine a terrorist without any guns or bombs. Would he or she be considered a real terrorist. The answer is yes; anyone who threatens or endangers the lives of others are terrorists, even those who utilize bacteria and viruses rather than other usual weapons. When people use biological weapons as terrorism, that act is called a bioterrorism. Unfortunately, this actions have been repeated throughout the history, as well as in modern days. They can in fact be far more dangerous than actual weapons. [tags: Terrorism]

the war scare - The War Scare It has been said that the United States is just like the Roman Empire. We started off small, became a great power, and hit a high point in life, all of which have happened to the United States. Now, in the twenty-first century, we are putting ourselves in places and positions that many believe that we do not belong in. For Example, in the country of Afghanistan, we have “worn out our welcome”. We went over there, set up American businesses, and basically took over their business flow. [tags: essays research papers]

Postmaster General John Potter - Postmaster General John Potter is a lifelong postal employee well acquainted with the strengths and weaknesses of the US Postal Service (USPS). He is the 71st successor to Benjamin Franklin, and is the longest-serving postal head since the 1820s and only the sixth postal worker promoted from within. He led the Postal Service to record levels of service, customer satisfaction, and efficiency. He faced daunting challenges of 2001 terrorist attacks and of transforming USPS to cope with the unique demands of the 21st century. [tags: Expository, Informative]

The History of Bioterrorism - Throughout the progression of mankind, there has always been a need to become superior in tactics and technology over an opponent. It did not take long for man to discover the effective and deadly tactic of Bioterrorism, which is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria or other germs used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. As time passes, everything about bioterrorism becomes more and more sophisticated, making it very difficult to combat with. By examining the history of bioterrorism, one can learn how military forces utilize this deadly weapon. [tags: Terrorism ]

THE THREAT OF BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AND POSSIBLE PREVENTATIVE MEASURES - The Threat of Biological Warfare and Possible Preventative Measures The events of September 11,2001, have made the threat of terrorism on our mainland very real. The twin towers were made into rubble that day, along with the lives of the many people touched by the overwhelming loss of life that occurred that day. Now, if that isn’t enough to cope with, in creeps the specter of bio-terrorism. Biological weapons are devices intended to deliberately disseminate disease producing organisms or toxins in food, water, by insect, or as an aerosol. [tags: essays research papers]

Demon In The Freezer - The Demon in the Freezer by Richard Preston is an intriguing book that discusses the anthrax terrorist attacks after 9/11 and how smallpox might become a future bioterrorist threat to the world. The book provides a brief history of the smallpox disease including details of an outbreak in Germany in 1970. The disease was eradicated in 1979 due to the World Health Organization’s aggressive vaccine program. After the virus was no longer a treat the World Health Organization discontinued recommending the smallpox vaccination. [tags: Richard Preston]

Effects of Biological and Chemical Warfare - “The gas instantly caused severe burning in their throats and lung. The men clutched their chests, coughed, and gasped for breath. Attempts to shield themselves from the gas were largely futile. Many tried to burrow their noses and mouths or to cover them with cloth, but the moist, dense poison penetrated everything” (Taylor 17). Those were the effects of chlorine quoted by an eyewitness. The gases and biological agents used against people in war are very cruel. They cause lots of deaths in short periods of time, leaving lasting effects wherever they are unleashed. [tags: Biological Weapon, Viral and Bacteria Pathogens]

America Attacked - America Attacked The United States of America has gone through almost every emotion in the book, but we will never forget the events of September 11. As of now, investigations are taking place across the nation. From anthrax to the Al-Qaeda, the FBI and CIA seem to be stumped as to where to look. The developments of the story on anthrax have not stopped President Bush on his “Life Must Go On” speeches, but it anthrax scares still have citizens in a frenzy. How to deal with anthrax, or basically the mental idea of “ohmigosh I can’t check my mail I might die” has its pros and cons since you can’t avoid checking your mail for the rest of your life, yet there is always that fear there. [tags: Essays Papers]

We Must Never Surrender the Right of Open Discussion - We Must Never Surrender the Right of Open Discussion As a nation, we need thoughtful discussion concerning the September 11 attacks. In a time when open discussion is more necessary than ever, it is discouraging to see simple questions about our nations interests, posed in these forums, branded as anti-American, inappropriate, or as enemies within. Now more than ever, careful and respectful debate can grant us the informational dexterity needed to maintain an open and neutral perspective as events unfold. [tags: September 11 Terrorism Essays]

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