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Our ancient religious texts and epics give a good insight into the water storage and conservation systems that prevailed in those days.
Over the years the rising populations, growing industrialization and expecting agriculture have pushed upon the demand for water. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and digging wells; some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate (remove salts) water. Water conservation has become the need of the day. The idea of ground water recharging by harvesting rainwater is gaining importance in many cities.
In the forest, water seeps gently into the ground as vegetation retards the flow of water over the surface. This ground water in turn feeds wells, lakes and rivers. Protecting forests means protecting water 'catchments' capacity. In ancient India, people believed that forests were the 'mothers' of rivers and worshipped the sources of these water bodies.
Some Ancient Indian Methods performance water Conservation
The Indus Valley Civilization, that flourished along the banks of the river Indus and other parts of Western and Northern India about 5,000 years ago, had one of the most sophisticated urban water supply and sewage systems in the world.
The fact that the people were well acquainted with hygiene can be seen from the covered drains running beneath the streets found in the ruins at both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Another very good example is the well-planned city of Dholavira, on Khadir Between, a low plateau in the Rann in Gujarat. One of the oldest, water harvesting systems is found about 130 km from Pune along Naneghat in the Western Ghats.
A large number of tanks were cut in the rocks to provide drinking water to tradesmen who used to travel along this ancient trade route. Each fort in the area had is own water harvesting and storage system in the form of rock-cut cisterns, ponds, tanks and wells that are still in use today. A large number of forts like Raigad hand tanks that supplied water.
In ancient times, houses in parts of western Rajasthan were built so that each had a root top water harvesting system. Rainwater from these rooftops was directed into underground tanks. This system can be seen even today in all the forts, palaces and houses of the region.
Underground baked earthen pipes and tunnels to maintain the flow of water for to transport it to distant places, are still functional at Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh, Golkunda and Bijapur in Karnataka, and Aurangabad in Maharashtra.
The most important step in the direction of finding solutions to problems of water and environment conservation is to change people's attitudes and habits which includes each one of us. Conserve water because it is the right thing to do. We can follow some of the simple things that have been listed below and contributed to water conservation.
I. Try to do one thing each day that will result in saving water. Don't worry if the savings are minimal because every drop counts. You can make a difference.
II. Remember to use only the amount you actually need.
III. Form a group of water -conscious people and encouarage your friends and neighbours to be part of this group. Promote water conservation in community news letters and on bulletin boars. Encourage your friends, neighbours and co-workers to also contribute.
IV. Encourage your family to keep looking for new ways to conserve water in and around your home.
V. Make sure that your home is leak free. Many homes have leaking pipes that goods unnoticed.
VI. Do not leave the tap running while you are brushing your teeth or soaping your face.
VII. See that there are no leaks in the toilet tank. You can check this by adding colour to the tank. If there is a leak, color will appear in the toilet bowl within 30 minutes. (Flush as soon as the test is done, since food colouring may stain the tank.)
IX. Avoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily. Put a brick or any other device that occupies space to cut down on the amount of water needed in each flush.
X. When washing the car, use water from bucket and not hosepice.
XI. Do not throw away water that has been used for washing vegetable, rice or dals. Use it to water plants or to clean the floors, etc.
XII. You can store water in a variety of ways. A simple method is to collection source. You can also collect water in a bucket during the rainy season.