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A change management process: Grounded in both theory and practice .
Journal of Change Management; London; Aug 2002; Anthony J Mento; Raymond M Jones; Walter Dirndorfer;.
MODELS OF THE CHANGE PROCESS .
Three models have stood as exemplars in the change management literature. The first model is Kotter's (1995) eight-step model for transforming organisations. Kotter's model was developed after a study of over 100 organisations varying in size and industry type. After learning that the majority of major change efforts failed, Kotter couched his model as a way of avoiding major errors in the change process. It is best viewed as a vision for the change process. It calls attention to the key phases in the change process. Two key lessons learned from the model are that the change process goes through a series of phases, each lasting a considerable amount of time, and that critical mistakes in any of the phases can have a devastating impact on the momentum of the change process. Kotter's model is aimed at the strategic level of the change management process.
Jick (1991a) developed a tactical level model to guide the implementation of major organisational change. His ten-step approach serves as a blueprint for organisations embarking on the change process as well as a way to evaluate a change effort already in progress. He notes that implementing change is an ongoing process of discovery, with thoughtful questions continually being asked throughout the change journey. Jick states that implementation is a blend of both art and science. How a manager implements change is as important as what the change is. How well one does in implementing a particular change depends ultimately on the nature of the change, on how sensitive the implementers are to the voices in the organisation, and on the recognition that change is a continuous, not a discrete process.
The seven-step change acceleration process used at GE (Garvin, 2000: 131) follows closely Lewin's (1947) notion of unfreezing, movement and refreezing as the essential components of the change process.