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As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in the Arts, they use a range of starting points including observation, experience and research to represent, generate, develop and communicate real, imaginary and abstract ideas. For example:

  • in Drama, students work as an ensemble to explore cultural diversity by sharing experiences and observations through improvisation and role-play about a familiar situation, maintaining a diary of personal reflections throughout their performance making
  • in Art, following several lessons exploring line, tonal rendering, perspective and foreshortening as ways to represent and define form, students work from direct observation of people/places/objects and create the illusion of space and form on a two-dimensional surface.

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in the Arts, they use a range of starting points including observation, experience and research to represent, generate, develop and communicate real, imaginary and abstract ideas. For example:

  • in Drama, students work as an ensemble to explore cultural diversity by sharing experiences and observations through improvisation and role-play about a familiar situation, maintaining a diary of personal reflections throughout their performance making
  • in Art, following several lessons exploring line, tonal rendering, perspective and foreshortening as ways to represent and define form, students work from direct observation of people/places/objects and create the illusion of space and form on a two-dimensional surface.

Students explore different contemporary and traditional arts forms and styles to develop understanding of the concept of style. Students apply their arts knowledge and, with guidance, an understanding of style when experimenting with, selecting and using a range of contemporary and traditional media, materials, equipment and technologies to explore and expand their understanding and use of a range of skills, techniques and processes in the arts disciplines of Art (two-dimensional and three-dimensional), Dance, Drama, Media, Music, and Visual Communication. For example:

  • in Dance, students learn and present dance sequences from different cultures and styles.

Students work both independently and collaboratively to develop creative and effective ways of combining and manipulating arts elements, principles and/or conventions when designing, making and presenting arts works for particular purposes and audiences. For example:

  • in Media, students video or photograph two alternate interpretations of a short visual narrative, to present the story from the point of view of two characters, using variations in lighting, camera angle and shot types
  • in Visual Communication, students explore the potential of symbols and cartoons and elements of shape, line and colour to fulfil a design brief.

Students use processes of rehearsal, reflection and evaluation to develop skills in refining and shaping their works to effectively communicate their intended aims, and experiment with imaginative ways of creating solutions to set tasks. They maintain a record of their exploration and development of ideas and problem solving processes; for example, in a visual diary, on video or in an electronic journal.

Students explore and respond to arts works from a range of styles, forms, times, traditions and cultures. They use research to inform their concept of style and apply their observation skills when describing, comparing and analysing arts works. Students use appropriate arts language when discussing their own and other artists’ intentions and expressive use of arts forms, elements, principles and/or conventions and when describing, analysing and interpreting the content and meaning of arts works. They develop skills in analysing, interpreting and evaluating specific expressive, technical and aesthetic qualities of their own and others’ works. For example:

  • in Music, they listen to and discuss excerpts from music that explores the aural aesthetics of musical representations of air and earth.

Students develop their ability to listen to, reflect on and acknowledge others’ perspectives when discussing their own and others’ responses to arts works.

At Level 7, students are working toward the Level 8 standards.

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Civics and Citizenship, they study the origins of democracy and various other types of government in an historical context. They learn about how past societies such as Ancient Greece and Rome have influenced modern democracies. They learn how Australian democracy developed from an autocracy to a modern democracy and the British foundations of Australian democracy.

Students learn about significant milestones in the development of Australian law, governance and rights. They explore the historical origins of some political rights, such as universal suffrage, secret ballot and payment of parliamentarians. They consider examples of the fight for political rights such as the Eureka movement, the eight-hour day and fair working.

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Civics and Citizenship, they study the origins of democracy and various other types of government in an historical context. They learn about how past societies such as Ancient Greece and Rome have influenced modern democracies. They learn how Australian democracy developed from an autocracy to a modern democracy and the British foundations of Australian democracy.

Students learn about significant milestones in the development of Australian law, governance and rights. They explore the historical origins of some political rights, such as universal suffrage, secret ballot and payment of parliamentarians. They consider examples of the fight for political rights such as the Eureka movement, the eight-hour day and fair working conditions, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander rights and the vote for women. They look at the origins of Australian citizenship and how it can be acquired.

Students learn about key features of Australian democracy. They learn about the two houses of the Australian parliament and the ways that citizens are represented in the Senate and the House of Representatives. They compare the roles of federal and state parliaments. They learn about the general processes of elections in Australia. They consider the separate responsibilities of the three levels of government and the impact of each level on the daily lives of citizens. They develop understanding of aspects of political parties and their leaders, the role of the Australian Constitution, and the courts. They discuss examples in the media of people, laws, and issues concerning these features of democracy.

Students consider the English origins of Australia’s legal system and the origins of common and statute law. They learn about the purposes of laws and consider examples of the process of making and changing them. They evaluate the merits and successes of the principles in Australia’s legal system such as justice, the presumption of innocence and equality before the law. They identify the requisite conditions for a fair trial.

Through historical and contemporary examples, including those from Australia, students are introduced to the values and qualities of leadership. Students are provided with opportunities to take on a variety of leadership roles. They develop skills required for active and informed citizenship and use these in class and community contexts. For example, they use cooperative decision making to design and evaluate a group project, seek a variety of opinions and use a voting method to determine the majority view about an issue.

Students examine the ways in which Australians are connected to other people in the Asia–Pacific region and around the world. They explore the responsibilities of global citizenship for individuals, organisations and governments and the roles and responsibilities of companies, producers and consumers in relation to sustainability. They explore ways in which countries work together to protect the environment.

Students interact with a variety of groups and organisations in civic and community events. With assistance, they seek opportunities to actively engage in school, local and community events. They research issues and events of importance to the community, recognise a range of perspectives, and propose possible solutions and actions. These issues may be related to matters such as environmental sustainability, social justice and human rights and may have local, national and global significance.

At Level 7, students are working toward the Level 8 standards.

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Communication, they develop a range of strategies for listening attentively and extracting meaning from communications, including taking notes and small group discussion to record and summarise main messages. They reflect on how the explicit body language of a speaker influences their enjoyment and understanding of a presentation, and practise modifying their own body language to show interest and respect when listening to a speaker.

Students respond to a wide variety of aural, written and visual media; for example film, radio, the Internet, billboards, multimedia, and text messages. They explore both implicit and explicit meaning, how the author has structured and presented ideas, and whether they have used specialised.

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Communication, they develop a range of strategies for listening attentively and extracting meaning from communications, including taking notes and small group discussion to record and summarise main messages. They reflect on how the explicit body language of a speaker influences their enjoyment and understanding of a presentation, and practise modifying their own body language to show interest and respect when listening to a speaker.

Students respond to a wide variety of aural, written and visual media; for example film, radio, the Internet, billboards, multimedia, and text messages. They explore both implicit and explicit meaning, how the author has structured and presented ideas, and whether they have used specialised language or symbols to communicate their message. Students share the meaning they have constructed with others and discuss any differences. They continue to challenge assumptions, use questions to clarify understanding, and justify their own interpretations while acknowledging that others may have different interpretations. They reflect on and evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of media in communicating a similar message, considering accuracy, inclusiveness and the techniques used to shape audience response.

Students expand their knowledge of specialised language used across the curriculum to communicate specific meanings and gain practice in using specific forms of communication; for example, practical reports in Science or fieldwork reports in Geography.

Students regularly present information, ideas and opinions for a variety of purposes, to a range of audiences, in both formal and informal settings. They focus on identifying the key messages they wish to communicate and structuring their ideas logically and coherently. They experiment with a range of presentation forms and seek feedback from their audience as to the effectiveness of their communication. Students work together to develop criteria which can be used to evaluate presentations.

At Level 7, students are working toward the Level 8 standards.

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Design, Creativity and Technology, they individually and in teams, develop innovative solutions in design and technology contexts (for example, creating a low-fat biscuit and designing a three-dimensional, environmentally-friendly package for eight of the biscuits) and evaluate their decisions with reference to design brief specifications. They develop greater spatial awareness, are encouraged to think flexibly, and represent their ideas using two- and three-dimensional hand- and computer-assisted drawing and modelling techniques including the use of appropriate technical language. They further explore the properties and characteristics of materials /ingredients, and carry out tests to determine their suitability for intended

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Design, Creativity and Technology, they individually and in teams, develop innovative solutions in design and technology contexts (for example, creating a low-fat biscuit and designing a three-dimensional, environmentally-friendly package for eight of the biscuits) and evaluate their decisions with reference to design brief specifications. They develop greater spatial awareness, are encouraged to think flexibly, and represent their ideas using two- and three-dimensional hand- and computer-assisted drawing and modelling techniques including the use of appropriate technical language. They further explore the properties and characteristics of materials /ingredients, and carry out tests to determine their suitability for intended products and/or systems .

In developing their understanding of systems, students learn about open- and closed-loop systems, and their control and the components used to make basic automated system; and energy sources (renewable and non-renewable) and forms that power systems. They explore how technological systems can convert energy and magnify force.

Students learn how design elements and principles can enhance their design work. Students refer to design briefs to consider and investigate aspects of function and aesthetics. They also consider how social, cultural, economic and environmental factors influence the development of their design ideas. They trial and make products and systems based on their design concepts, justifying changes in their thinking as they design, develop and evaluate products and systems, and recognise the right of others to perceive things differently.

Students further develop an understanding of the creative problem solving process. Individually and collaboratively, they apply imaginative and innovative strategies to develop creative design options, including those that are not immediately obvious, and plans for production.

Students continue to develop a variety of drawing and modelling techniques and computer assisted methods to visualise design ideas and concepts, and generate alternative options. After selecting and justifying the best design option, they develop a logically sequenced outline of the major stages of production and a list of materials/ingredients and/or systems components and quantities required. Students use numeracy skills to calculate quantities, sizes and/or expected outputs. They produce the product/system, using tools, equipment, machines and materials/ingredients safely and wear personal protective clothing and equipment if appropriate. Students develop a basic understanding of the risk assessment process. With direction, they choose and use increasingly complex production techniques and equipment; for example, a soldering iron, wire cutters, a food processor and electric beater, a hand plane, pedestal drill, overlocker, and report faults with tools and equipment. They reflect on and record the progress of their production activities, and make changes if required.

Concentrating on the aesthetic, functional features and/or performance of the product/system, students consider how it, and the processes used to develop it, could be improved, and compare it to other similar products/systems. They discuss and develop evaluation criteria to analyse and evaluate their completed product/system and consider the social and environmental impacts of their own and others’ products. They analyse and evaluate an innovative, recently developed and commercially available product or system and consider its benefits and drawbacks to user/consumer and manufacturer/producer.

By the end of Level 7, students understand how text structures can influence the complexity of a text and are dependent on audience. purpose and context. They demonstrate understanding of how the choice of language features. images and vocabulary affects meaning. They explain issues and ideas from a variety of sources, analysing supporting evidence and implied meaning. They select specific details from texts to develop their own response, recognising that texts reflect different viewpoints.

Students understand how the selection of a variety of language features can influence an audience. They understand how to draw on personal knowledge, textual analysis and other sources to express or challenge a point of view. They create texts showing how language features. text structures, and images from other texts can be combined for effect. They create structured and coherent texts for a range of purposes and audiences. When creating and editing texts they demonstrate understanding of grammar. use a variety of more specialised vocabulary, use accurate spelling and punctuation.

Students listen for and explain different perspectives in texts.

By the end of Level 7, students understand how text structures can influence the complexity of a text and are dependent on audience. purpose and context. They demonstrate understanding of how the choice of language features. images and vocabulary affects meaning. They explain issues and ideas from a variety of sources, analysing supporting evidence and implied meaning. They select specific details from texts to develop their own response, recognising that texts reflect different viewpoints.

Students understand how the selection of a variety of language features can influence an audience. They understand how to draw on personal knowledge, textual analysis and other sources to express or challenge a point of view. They create texts showing how language features. text structures, and images from other texts can be combined for effect. They create structured and coherent texts for a range of purposes and audiences. When creating and editing texts they demonstrate understanding of grammar. use a variety of more specialised vocabulary, use accurate spelling and punctuation.

Students listen for and explain different perspectives in texts. They understand how the selection of a variety of language features can influence an audience. They understand how to draw on personal knowledge, textual analysis and other sources to express or challenge a point of view. They create texts showing how language features and images from other texts can be combined for effect. They create texts structured and coherent texts for a range purposes and audiences. They make presentations and contribute actively to class and group discussions, using language features to engage the audience .

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Health and Physical Education, they develop and refine a range of movement and manipulative skills; for example, gymnastics routines and high-level ball skills such as shooting a basket in basketball or spiking a volleyball. They participate in a variety of team and individual games and activities, using and building on skills and strategies from other sports as well as continuing to develop new, sport-specific, skills.

Students develop their swimming stroke techniques and proficiency in a range of water safety skills as they participate within an aquatic environment. This could include: swimming for a continuous distance of 150 metres, changing between freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke or survival backstroke; and while.

As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Health and Physical Education, they develop and refine a range of movement and manipulative skills; for example, gymnastics routines and high-level ball skills such as shooting a basket in basketball or spiking a volleyball. They participate in a variety of team and individual games and activities, using and building on skills and strategies from other sports as well as continuing to develop new, sport-specific, skills.

Students develop their swimming stroke techniques and proficiency in a range of water safety skills as they participate within an aquatic environment. This could include: swimming for a continuous distance of 150 metres, changing between freestyle, backstroke, breaststroke or survival backstroke; and while clothed, performing correct survival techniques, including sculling, treading water, floating and survival strokes for an extended period of time in a pool or open water. During participation in a range of outdoor recreation and adventure activities, students develop skills, knowledge and behaviours which enhance safe participation in these activities. For example, as part of a bushwalking activity, students could develop an understanding of appropriate clothing and footwear required and the need for sun protection and access to drinking water.

Students explore views about fitness and suggest what fitness might mean to various groups in society. They develop their understanding of the physical, mental, social and emotional benefits of participation in physical activity, and examine factors which influence such participation. They consider the relationship between physical activity, fitness and health, and explore ways to measure their own fitness and physical activity levels. They explore the relationship between their physical activity and nutrition in order to understand how they can maintain physical health. They investigate and address positive and negative motivational factors that influence the value they place on participating in physical activity. They are introduced to the components of performance-related fitness, and learn how to analyse and evaluate sports and activities from this perspective.

Students engage in activities which develop strategic thinking and tactical knowledge to improve individual and team performance in competitive sports or games. They collaborate with team members planning strategies and practising set plays for responding to games-based tactical challenges. Students observe peer performance, developing and using criteria to provide precise feedback about the performance of motor skills and tactics used in a specific sport or game. They also monitor and analyse their own performance.

Students undertake a variety of roles in team games (for example, player, coach, umpire or administrator) and reflect on their experiences. They respect the right of others to participate. They reflect on their own personal and social behaviours in physical activity settings, and how they contribute to creating an inclusive and supportive environment for learning and fair play.

Students continue their study of the changes associated with adolescence by identifying what changes have already occurred and what changes (physical, social and emotional) they can expect to experience. They describe the influence of the family on shaping personal identity and values. They explain how community attitudes and laws influence the sense of right and wrong.

In developing strategies to minimise harm and to protect their own and others’ health, students consider health resources, products and services, and the influences of the law, public health programs, their conscience, community attitudes, and religious beliefs. They begin to clarify a cohesive set of personal values and how they could be used to improve their health.

Students describe the health interests and needs of young people as a group, including those related to sexual health (for example, safe sex, contraception, abstinence and prevention and cure of sexually transmitted infections) and drug issues (for example, tobacco, alcohol, cannabis use). They explore actions at personal, family and societal levels that help to meet these needs, and identify the influences of individuals and groups. They explore ways of dealing with change, especially the social and emotional aspects of transition from primary to secondary school. They learn how to access reliable information about health issues affecting them and to identify barriers and enablers to accessing health services.

Students reflect on the range of influences on personal food intake: peers, advertising, mass media, mood, convenience, habit, cultural beliefs and values, and access to food products and services. They explore topical issues related to eating, and identify personal and community factors that influence their own food selection. Students consider the nutritional requirements for growth and activity at different stages of life, and learn to set nutritional goals using food-selection models. They learn how to analyse nutritional information provided in advertising and product labels, and to make decisions about how this information can be used by, or influence, individuals in their food choices.

The following content is to be taught as part of an overview for the historical period. It is not intended to be taught in depth. An overview will constitute approximately 10% of the total teaching time for the level. Overview content identifies important features of the period, approximately 60 000 BC (BCE) - c.650 AD (CE), as part of an expansive chronology that helps students understand broad patterns of historical change. As such, the overview provides the broader context for the teaching of depth study content and can be built into various parts of a teaching and learning program. This means that overview content can be used to give students an introduction to the historical period; to make the links to and between the depth studies; and to consolidate understanding through a review of the period.

Overview content for the ancient world (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, Greece, Rome, India, China and the Maya) includes the following:

  1. the theory that people moved out of Africa around 60 000 BC ( BCE ) and migrated to other parts of the world, including Australia.
  2. the evidence for the emergence and establishment of ancient societies (including art, iconography, writing tools and pottery)
  3. key features of ancient societies (farming, trade, social classes, religion, rule of law)

There are three depth studies for this historical period. For each depth study, there are up to three electives that focus on a particular society, event, movement or development. It is expected that ONE elective will be studied in detail. A depth study elective will constitute approximately 30% of the total teaching time for the level. The content in each depth study elective is designed to allow detailed study of specific aspects of this historical period. As part of a teaching and learning program, depth study content can be integrated with the overview content and/or with other depth study electives.

Students build on and consolidate their understanding of historical inquiry from previous levels in depth, using a range of sources for the study of the ancient past.

  1. How historians and archaeologists investigate history, including excavation and archival research (ACDSEH001)
  2. The range of sources that can be used in an historical investigation, including archaeological and written sources (ACDSEH029)
  3. The methods and sources used to investigate at least ONE historical controversy or mystery that has challenged historians or archaeologists, such as in the analysis of unidentified human remains (ACDSEH030)
  4. The nature of the sources for ancient Australia and what they reveal about Australia’s past in the ancient period, such as the use of resources (ACDSEH031)
  • The importance of conserving the remains of the ancient past, including the heritage of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. (ACDSEH148)

    Students investigate ONE of these Mediterranean societies in depth: Egypt or Greece or Rome.

    1. The physical features of ancient Egypt (such as the River Nile) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACDSEH002)
  • Roles of key groups in ancient Egyptian society (such as the nobility, bureaucracy, women, slaves), including the influence of law and religion (ACDSEH032)
  • The significant beliefs, values and practices of the ancient Egyptians, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACDSEH033)
  • Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the conquest of other lands, the expansion of trade, and peace treaties (ACDSEH034)
  • The role of a significant individual in ancient Egyptian history such as Hatshepsut or Rameses II (ACDSEH129)
      1. The physical features of ancient Greece (such as its mountainous landscape) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACDSEH003)
      2. Roles of key groups in Athenian and/or Spartan society (such as citizens, women, slaves), including the influence of law and religion (ACDSEH035)
      3. The significant beliefs, values and practices of the ancient Greeks, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACDSEH036)
      4. Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, colonisation and war (such as the Peloponnesian and Persian wars) (ACDSEH037)
      5. The role of a significant individual in ancient Greek history such as Leonidas or Pericles (ACDSEH130)
      1. The physical features of ancient Rome (such as the River Tiber) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there. (ACDSEH004)
    1. Roles of key groups in ancient Roman society (such as patricians, plebeians, women, slaves), including the influence of law and religion. (ACDSEH038)
    2. The significant beliefs, values and practices of the ancient Romans, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs. (ACDSEH039)
    3. Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, the rise of the Roman empire (including its material remains), and the spread of religious beliefs (ACDSEH040)
    4. The role of a significant individual in ancient Rome’s history such as Julius Caesar or Augustus (ACDSEH131)
        1. Students investigate ONE of these Asian societies in depth: China or India

          1. The physical features of India (such as fertile river plains) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACDSEH006)
        2. Roles of key groups in Indian society in this period (such as kings, emperors, priests, merchants, peasants), including the influence of law and religion. (ACDSEH044)
        3. The significant beliefs, values and practices of Indian society, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACDSEH045)
        4. Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, the rise of the Mauryan Empire (including its material remains), and the spread of philosophies and beliefs (ACDSEH046)
        5. The role of a significant individual in Indian history such as Chandragupta Maurya or Ashoka (ACDSEH133)
          1. The physical features of China (such as the Yellow River) and how they influenced the civilisation that developed there (ACDSEH005)
        6. Roles of key groups in Chinese society in this period (such as kings, emperors, scholars, craftsmen, women), including the influence of law and religion. (ACDSEH041)
        7. The significant beliefs, values and practices of Chinese society, with a particular emphasis on ONE of the following areas: everyday life, warfare, or death and funerary customs (ACDSEH042)
        8. Contacts and conflicts within and/or with other societies, resulting in developments such as the expansion of trade, the rise of Imperial China (including its material remains), and the spread of philosophies and beliefs (ACDSEH043)
        9. The role of a significant individual in ancient Chinese history such as Confucius or Qin Shi Huang (ACDSEH132)

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Geography, they use a variety of geographic tools and skills, together with an inquiry-based approach, to investigate the characteristics of the regions of Australia and those surrounding it: Asia, the Pacific and Antarctica. They explore how and why, over time, human and physical interactions produce changes to the characteristics of regions, for example, settlement patterns and agricultural and urban land use.

          Students extend their knowledge and understanding of physical phenomena, including natural hazards, and of the physical processes that produce them. They identify patterns of distribution and occurrence of major physical features and their interrelationship with human activities such as farming, fishing, manufacturing.

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Geography, they use a variety of geographic tools and skills, together with an inquiry-based approach, to investigate the characteristics of the regions of Australia and those surrounding it: Asia, the Pacific and Antarctica. They explore how and why, over time, human and physical interactions produce changes to the characteristics of regions, for example, settlement patterns and agricultural and urban land use.

          Students extend their knowledge and understanding of physical phenomena, including natural hazards, and of the physical processes that produce them. They identify patterns of distribution and occurrence of major physical features and their interrelationship with human activities such as farming, fishing, manufacturing and settlement. Students become aware of contrasts within the regions of Australia and those surrounding it from their investigation of a number of smaller regions such as South-East Asia, the South Pacific nations and Papua New Guinea. They develop an appreciation of differences in the culture, living conditions and outlooks of people, including the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, in these areas.

          Students investigate environmental issues such as forest use and global warming. They begin to design policies, and evaluate existing policies, for managing the impact of these issues and ensuring the sustainability of resources.

          Students apply their knowledge and understanding of scale, grid references, legend and direction to use large-scale maps (such as topographic maps), as sources of spatial information, as well as other spatial representations (such as those found in atlases and geographic information systems). Students research and analyse photographs, maps, satellite images and text from electronic media and add these to their presentations.

          Observing basic mapping conventions, students learn to draw overlay theme maps. They recognise that parts of the Earth’s surface can be represented in various ways, at different scales, and from different perspectives on a range of maps, photographs and satellite images. They are provided with opportunities to collect and process data and present a summary of results using a range of techniques such as sketch maps, graphs and electronic media (such as geographic information systems and spreadsheets).

          Students undertake fieldwork to investigate the characteristics of a selected local region and the physical processes and human activities that form and transform it. Students are encouraged to participate in activities to contribute to the sustainable management of local places.

          At Level 7, students are working toward the Level 8 standards.

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Information and Communications Technology, they learn to use a variety of ICT tools and techniques to assist with filtering, classifying, representing, describing and organising ideas, concepts and issues. For example, a graphic/visual organisers such as an interaction outliner can be used to help structure thinking about the actions, reactions and outcomes of two groups associated with an issue; and rule-using software such as databases and spreadsheets enable the filtering and classifying of data and information in order to make more informed decisions. Students begin to use ICT tools and peripherals, such as dataloggers, to support the input of data for sensing, monitoring, measuring or controlling sequences and events.

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Information and Communications Technology, they learn to use a variety of ICT tools and techniques to assist with filtering, classifying, representing, describing and organising ideas, concepts and issues. For example, a graphic/visual organisers such as an interaction outliner can be used to help structure thinking about the actions, reactions and outcomes of two groups associated with an issue; and rule-using software such as databases and spreadsheets enable the filtering and classifying of data and information in order to make more informed decisions. Students begin to use ICT tools and peripherals, such as dataloggers, to support the input of data for sensing, monitoring, measuring or controlling sequences and events. Through practice, students become skilled in judging the capabilities and limitations of these tools and techniques as aids to learning.

          In addition, students use ICT tools to retrace the decisions made and actions taken when learning and problem solving; for example, by using a range of symbols, charts, images, sound and text, students can create a flow chart that maps their thinking processes and actions. Students reflect on the effectiveness of these saved thinking process maps and retrieve relevant ones to guide future applications.

          Students become efficient users of ICT for planning collaborative projects that involve creating information products and solving problems. Using software such as word processors and spreadsheets, and using techniques such as tables and shading, they develop project plans that sequence tasks, estimate timelines and record task responsibilities where teams are involved. Team members record and monitor progress through shared electronic files. Students use the operating system facilities to manage their desktop workspace and organise their files in a way that assists their personal learning style. They learn to save and retrieve compressed files and develop an understanding of the characteristics of different file formats, such as .jpeg. gif and .avi.

          Students develop their knowledge about the characteristics of data by manipulating various data types, such as text, sound, numbers and images (still and moving), to create formatted information products; for example, essays and reports, animated slide shows, and websites, brochures and cartoons. They plan the design of products, influenced by generally accepted ict presentation conventions. and develop criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of each presentation style. These include meeting audience/user needs and communicating a message effectively. Students make ongoing modifications to their products to improve their efficiency and effectiveness. such as testing the functionality of parts of a solution, correcting typographical errors and editing to clarify the meaning of the message.

          Students apply their knowledge of data characteristics to solving problems; for example, when calculating the time it takes to travel to a distant planet using various fuels, they elect to use spreadsheet software because it is designed to manipulate numeric data, unlike word-processing software, which is designed to format text.

          Students explore the distinction between legal and illegal uses of ICT and create information products that comply with ICT intellectual property law. This particularly relates to copyright.

          Students develop and manage their digital bank of evidence, developing, for example, an electronic portfolio for a range of audiences, including teachers, parents and potential employers, and use this to demonstrate and monitor their learning progress in all areas of the curriculum.

          They select appropriate search engines and use complex search strategies (for example, Boolean ) to locate information from the Internet and other sources, and they evaluate the credibility, accuracy, reliability and comprehensiveness of this information. They organise and store gathered information to enable easy retrieval. They access online interactive e-learning tools to help them to develop knowledge in all areas of the curriculum.

          Students use email software functions to organise their email mailbox. For example, they clean up, archive and sort email to allow the efficient and secure storage and retrieval of relevant messages and/or attachments. They access appropriate websites and online forums such as blogs and chat sites, to locate information and to share ideas, applying protocols that respect other users and that protect the personal safety of students. They publish their work on the Internet after it has been tested and evaluated.

          At Level 7, students are working toward the Level 8 standards.

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Interpersonal Development, they develop positive relationships through understanding and respecting others. They participate in activities which enable them to identify the differing values and beliefs held by individuals in local, national and global contexts, and reflect on the impact these may have on relationships.

          They learn how to manage their emotions and behaviour in their relationships, especially with peers. They consider the needs of others and ways of responding with appropriate sensitivity, learning to adapt their behaviour and language to suit different settings. Exploring appropriate scenarios, students learn that while they need to value friendship and respect confidentiality, in certain circumstances confidentiality.

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Interpersonal Development, they develop positive relationships through understanding and respecting others. They participate in activities which enable them to identify the differing values and beliefs held by individuals in local, national and global contexts, and reflect on the impact these may have on relationships.

          They learn how to manage their emotions and behaviour in their relationships, especially with peers. They consider the needs of others and ways of responding with appropriate sensitivity, learning to adapt their behaviour and language to suit different settings. Exploring appropriate scenarios, students learn that while they need to value friendship and respect confidentiality, in certain circumstances confidentiality may need to be breached. They manage their impulses to encourage harmonious collaborations and relationships.

          In a variety of forums, students investigate various forms of bullying and the consequences for the bully and the victim. They also explore other forms of conflict in both local and broader contexts. Through experience and reflection, students come to understand the need for empathy for others. They develop and practise appropriate skills in conflict resolution. Students explore how peers may influence the way they respond to others. They continue to identify strategies to build and maintain positive social relationships; for example, by acknowledging and celebrating the diversity of individuals, recognising peer influence on their own behaviour, showing sensitivity to cultural diversity, recognising and accommodating others’ strengths and weaknesses and acknowledging the existence and possible implications of different values and beliefs.

          Students work in teacher- and student-selected teams to complete short- and long-term tasks of varying complexity. When selecting team members, they are encouraged to recognise differing capabilities and are increasingly able to select a team which acknowledges the advantage of including students with a variety of learning and thinking styles.

          In their teams, students gain experience in a variety of different roles and reflect on those roles which they prefer. They participate in tasks which require them to build knowledge cooperatively to achieve a shared purpose, and reflect on the contribution they have made and how it could be improved. They also consider how the effectiveness of the team could be improved.

          At Level 7, students are working toward the Level 8 standards.

          As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 1 Level 8, they develop their understanding that cultural diversity exists and that customs and traditions vary within countries and over time. They investigate the important elements that make up a language system and the particular functions of grammatical concepts, and learn that words may not have a direct equivalent in another language.

          They begin to understand and use the language other than English within the world of teenage experience, on topics related to general interest, topics drawn from other domains and the world of learning. They start to exchange personal information, opinions, ideas, feelings and plans orally and through correspondence. They continue to adapt the language they use to.

          As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 1 Level 8, they develop their understanding that cultural diversity exists and that customs and traditions vary within countries and over time. They investigate the important elements that make up a language system and the particular functions of grammatical concepts, and learn that words may not have a direct equivalent in another language.

          They begin to understand and use the language other than English within the world of teenage experience, on topics related to general interest, topics drawn from other domains and the world of learning. They start to exchange personal information, opinions, ideas, feelings and plans orally and through correspondence. They continue to adapt the language they use to suit the communication context, and practise managing shifts of topic and speaker. They explore the structure of texts and distinguish between major points and detail. Using various print and electronic resources such as dictionaries, reference books, CD-ROMS and websites, they locate and interpret information. They gain insight into the process of independent language learning.

          Students reflect on culture and language, and the skills that can be acquired in intercultural understanding and language awareness. They begin to generalise and reflect on the relationship between languages and cultures beyond both English and the language being studied. They consider deeper cultural knowledge through the medium of the language, including concepts such as the cultural group’s own names for its cultural and communicative practices.

          Activities include a wide range of listening, speaking, reading and writing tasks as well as tasks that integrate these macro skills with intercultural understandings and language awareness. Students consider the audience, purpose and appropriate language for each communication task.

          Students communicate by referring to models and responding to prompting. They extend their knowledge of language and cultural understandings and use this knowledge to inform self expression in oral and written communication. They experiment with language and approximate accurate applications in new contexts and in open-ended situations. They explore a range of communicative tools and technology in their own research and development of original language.

          At Level 7, students are working toward the Level 8 standards.

          As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 2 Level 7, they develop their understanding that cultural diversity exists and that customs and traditions vary within countries and over time. They understand that these influence Australian life and culture. They also learn about the basic geography and history of the country or countries where the language other than English is used and make comparisons with Australia and other countries associated with the languages they have previously studied.

          Students learn why there are similarities and differences between languages, and how these are related. They begin to have a grasp of the history of the language they are studying and its links with other languages.

          As students work towards the achievement of standards in Languages at Pathway 2 Level 7, they develop their understanding that cultural diversity exists and that customs and traditions vary within countries and over time. They understand that these influence Australian life and culture. They also learn about the basic geography and history of the country or countries where the language other than English is used and make comparisons with Australia and other countries associated with the languages they have previously studied.

          Students learn why there are similarities and differences between languages, and how these are related. They begin to have a grasp of the history of the language they are studying and its links with other languages.

          Students begin to understand and use the language within the world of their own experience, including the world of learning, with some topics drawn from other domains. They participate in activities where they practise exchanging simple personal information on topics such as self, friends, family, time, school, likes, dislikes, foods, daily routines and pastimes. They talk about themselves in response to questions, and learn to ask questions.

          They begin to write short paragraphs, initially based on models and on memorised sequences, eventually developing independence. They apply basic word-processing skills using the language.

          Students are increasingly aware that there are technical terms for parts of sentences, and that they need to reflect on words, and their function and place in a sentence. They learn to differentiate between, and pronounce, sounds and to make use of cognates between languages. They consciously consider aspects of grammar and approach language learning as a problem solving activity.

          They make logical attempts to decipher meaning from written and spoken input, and use print and electronic resources such as dictionaries and CD-ROMs. They learn strategies for retaining language information for later use in new applications, and understand how parts of the language system work. Greetings, introductions, songs and other simple routines are used to introduce the sounds of the language and to encourage students to use the language. From the beginning, students are exposed to words, phrases and basic sentences in the language. As far as possible, students are immersed in hearing the language, whose meaning is made clear by:

          • gestures (for example, indicating, touching)
          • dramatisation (for example, role-playing, costume wearing, doll making, scenarios, imitating characters)
          • singing (for example, acted parts, participation rhymes, choral practice)
          • activities (for example, painting, Internet or multimedia games, digital learning objects, intercultural awareness games)
          • conversing (for example, repeating teacher models, asking and answering scaffolded questions, identifying objects and their characteristics, using ‘here and now’ cues, labelling classroom and home objects)
          • viewing (for example, video, graphic, visual and other stimulus material)
          • dance
          • reading aloud (for example ancient texts which develop a knowledge of pronunciation and delivery in order to gain a full appreciation of the literary qualities of these texts) etc.

          Students participate in a range of activities including cooking, physical education, games, drawing and puppet making which locate the language in real communication contexts, hearing extended but simple stretches of the language and gradually using it themselves.

          Students communicate by referring to a range of models and responding to teacher prompting. They begin to perform in open-ended situations, allowing variation and extension of language applications. They speak and write effectively, approximating meaning and authentic language use within defined topics and contexts.

          Students solve problems involving the order, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving all four operations with fractions, decimals, percentages and their equivalences, and express fractions in their simplest form. Students compare the cost of items to make financial decisions, with and without the use of digital technology. They make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. Students use variables to represent arbitrary numbers and connect the laws and properties of number to algebra and substitute numbers into algebraic expressions. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane and interpret and analyse graphs of relations from real data. Students develop simple linear models for situations, make predictions based on these models, solve related equations and check their solutions.

          Students use formulas for the area and perimeter of rectangles. They classify triangles and quadrilaterals and represent transformations of these shapes on the Cartesian plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students name the types of angles formed by a transversal crossing parallel lines and solve simple numerical problems involving these lines and angles. They describe different views of three-dimensional objects, and use models, sketches and digital technology to represent these views. Students calculate volumes of rectangular prisms.

          Students identify issues involving the collection of discrete and continuous data from primary and secondary sources. They construct stem-and-leaf plots and dot-plots. Students identify or calculate mean, mode, median and range for data sets, using digital technology for larger data sets. They describe the relationship between the median and mean in data displays. Students determine the sample space for simple experiments with equally likely outcomes, and assign probabilities outcomes.

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Personal Learning, they explore a range of preferred and non-preferred learning strategies and reflect on how various strategies contribute to their learning, recognising that particular learning tasks may require different strategies. They take greater responsibility for their own learning, making choices and decisions about their learning and considering their strengths and weaknesses.

          With support, students identify difficulties in their understanding of new material and develop a range of strategies to aid comprehension and understanding. They use feedback from teachers and other adults beyond the school context to expand their content knowledge, making use of learning opportunities within the school such as specialist.

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Personal Learning, they explore a range of preferred and non-preferred learning strategies and reflect on how various strategies contribute to their learning, recognising that particular learning tasks may require different strategies. They take greater responsibility for their own learning, making choices and decisions about their learning and considering their strengths and weaknesses.

          With support, students identify difficulties in their understanding of new material and develop a range of strategies to aid comprehension and understanding. They use feedback from teachers and other adults beyond the school context to expand their content knowledge, making use of learning opportunities within the school such as specialist music or technology facilities and guest speakers, and outside the school such as experiential workshops and specialist laboratories. Students monitor their learning and study habits and use this information to work with the teacher to set learning goals. They identify the attributes of effective learners, such as risk-taking, persistence and flexibility, and use these criteria to evaluate their growth as learners.

          Students understand, appreciate and monitor the impact of differing emotions on their learning. They manage impulsive behaviour by considering alternative courses of action in response to an idea or problem and possible consequences. They develop their understanding of the value of persistence, by exploring the relationship between effort and performance, using both their own experiences and those of others including their peers and people who have made significant contributions to society. They identify and employ strategies for maintaining a positive attitude.

          Students reflect on the ethical aspects of dealing with others such as being honest and encouraging freedom of choice, and the advantages of acting responsibly in social and learning situations. They develop their skills in learning with and from their peers. They begin to take responsibility for the development and maintenance of a positive learning environment within and outside the classroom, recognising that individuals have different needs, opinions and goals and that compromises must be reached in determining acceptable group behaviours.

          Students practise setting short-term and long-term goals, prioritising their available time and developing strategies for monitoring their progress towards goal achievement. They undertake a range of tasks and monitor, evaluate and refine their management strategies. They reflect on their study and revision strategies and develop and use criteria to evaluate their work.

          At Level 7, students are working toward the Level 8 standards.

          The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-level band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standards and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-level period. The three strands of the curriculum.

          The Science Inquiry Skills and Science as a Human Endeavour strands are described across a two-level band. In their planning, schools and teachers refer to the expectations outlined in the Achievement Standards and also to the content of the Science Understanding strand for the relevant level to ensure that these two strands are addressed over the two-level period. The three strands of the curriculum are interrelated and their content is taught in an integrated way. The order and detail in which the content descriptions are organised into teaching/learning programs are decisions to be made by the teacher.

          Over Levels 7 to 10, students develop their understanding of microscopic and atomic structures; how systems at a range of scales are shaped by flows of energy and matter and interactions due to forces, and develop the ability to quantify changes and relative amounts. In Level 7, students explore the diversity of life on Earth and continue to develop their understanding of the role of classification in ordering and organising information. They use and develop models such as food chains, food webs and the water cycle to represent and analyse the flow of energy and matter through ecosystems and explore the impact of changing components within these systems. They consider the interaction between multiple forces when explaining changes in an object’s motion. They explore the notion of renewable and non-renewable resources and consider how this classification depends on the timescale considered. They investigate relationships in the Earth, sun, moon system and use models to predict and explain events. Students make accurate measurements and control variables to analyse relationships between system components and explore and explain these relationships through increasingly complex representations.

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Thinking Processes. they participate in increasingly complex investigations and activities in which they seek evidence to support their conclusions, and investigate the validity of other people’s ideas; for example, by testing the credibility of differing accounts of the same event, questioning conclusions based on very small or biased samples of data, and identifying and questioning generalisations. From such investigations and activities, students learn to make and justify changes to their thinking and develop awareness that others may have perceptions different from their own.

          Students draw on an increasing range of contexts to formulate the questions that drive their investigations. They participate in challenging.

          As students work towards the achievement of Level 8 standards in Thinking Processes. they participate in increasingly complex investigations and activities in which they seek evidence to support their conclusions, and investigate the validity of other people’s ideas; for example, by testing the credibility of differing accounts of the same event, questioning conclusions based on very small or biased samples of data, and identifying and questioning generalisations. From such investigations and activities, students learn to make and justify changes to their thinking and develop awareness that others may have perceptions different from their own.

          Students draw on an increasing range of contexts to formulate the questions that drive their investigations. They participate in challenging tasks that stimulate, encourage and support the development of their thinking. They apply a range of discipline-based methodologies to conduct inquiries and gather, analyse and synthesise information. They gather information from a variety of sources and begin to distinguish between different types (for example, quantitative and qualitative) and sources (primary and secondary) of data. They begin to synthesise both self-selected and teacher-directed information to make meaning. They recognise the complexity of many of the ideas and concepts they are exploring and use a range of thinking strategies to develop connections.

          Students increasingly focus on tasks that require creative thinking for understanding, synthesis and decision making. They develop creative thinking behaviours and strategies through flexible approaches; for example, considering alternative perspectives, suspending judgment, seeking new information and testing novel ideas. They evaluate alternative conclusions and perspectives using criteria developed individually and in collaboration with their peers.

          Students reflect on their own learning, seeking to refine existing ideas and beliefs when provided with contradictory evidence. They develop their capacity to identify, monitor and evaluate the thinking skills and strategies they use. During their investigations and inquiries they use specific language to discuss their thinking and reflect on their thinking processes. They reflect on, modify and evaluate their thinking strategies.

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