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The English colony at Jamestown (Virginia) is founded in 1607. The Virginia Company of London(joint stock company) established the colony.

In 1608, John Smith was sent out from London to lead the colony. He developed tough rules, including one that required people to work if they wanted to eat. Smith asked Native Americans to teach them to survive and developed friendly trade relationships with them.

During hard times, the Virginia Company refused to give up.

Tobacco, a major cash crop and source of income, saved the colony.

English Pilgrims seeking religious freedom settled in the Plymouth Colony. The Pilgrims wanted to separate from the Church of England. (Massachusetts)

New England is hilly and rocky with rich forests and much coastland. It has cold, snowy winters and short, warm summers. Colonists fished and whaled in the waters and built ships from the lumber.

Puritans seeking religious freedom settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630.

People unhappy with the Puritans' religious intolerance founded Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire.

The middle colonies had many rivers and coastline, fertile soil, and long growing seasons. They used the rivers for trade and transport and the land for farming.

After the English takeover, New Netherlands was renamed New York.

Pennsylvania was founded in 1681 by a quaker, William Penn. Penn sought cooperation between religions. (The Puritans were not as tolerant.)

Quakers- religious group from England. They believed in religious toleration.

New Jersey- As a royal colony, New Jersey was controlled directly by the King, not a private company or family.

The warm, humid climate provided a long growing season that farmers used to raise tobacco, rice, as well as other crops.

Troubles in Virginia- The rich farmland led to conflicts between poor colonists and Native Americans over the land. In 1622 and 1644, violence broke out between farmers who wanted more space to plant tobacco and Native Americans trying to defend their land.

Bacon's Rebellion- In 1675, Nathaniel Bacon organized 1,000 settlers to kill Native Americans for their land. Virginia’s governor declared the settlers rebels, and in retaliation Bacon burned Jamestown.

Maryland was founded as a colony where Catholics could worship freely.

Large plantations marked the tidewater region, and small farms dominated the backcountry.

buffer colony (protection from Spanish to the South)

The Magna Carta(the first document to place restrictions on an English ruler's power) and English Bill of Rights guaranteed the rights of English citizens.

By 1760, each of the 13 colonies had a legislature (a group of people that have the power to make laws)

habeas corpus- the principle that a person cannot be held in prison without being charged with a specific crime.

The trial of John Peter Zenger helped establish the idea of freedom of the press.

England passed the Navigation Acts to regulate colonial trade to benefit the mother country. These were a series of acts that restricted colonial trade so that the colony would benefit the mother country.

In colonial society, men, women, and children had clearly defined roles.

Children were expected th contribute to the work and train for the work they would do as adults. (apprentice)

Colonial America offered poor and middle-class whites the opportunity to own land and improve their social status.

Indentured servant- signed a contract to work from 4-10 years in the colonies for anyone who would pay for his or her ocean passage to the Americas.

More than 10 million Africans were transported to the Americas in the Atlantic slave trade. As a result of the foul conditions, 15 to 20 percent of enslaved Africans died or committed suicide during the Middle Passage.

The plantation economy of the South became dependent on the labor of enslaved African Americans.

Slaves codes did not stop occassional slave revolts.

Education during colonial times was influenced by religion.

Colonial era literature included poetry, sermons, and popular writing.

The Great Awakening of the 1730s and 1740s led to the rise of many new churches. It was an emotion-packed Christian movement that swept through the colonies. The goal of the Great Awakening was to revive religious feeling.

Jonathan Edwards wrote Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.

Enlightenment thinkiers influenced ideas about government and natural rights.

British settlers moved into lands claimed by the French in the Ohio River Valley.

The French and Indian War begins as a young George Washington emerges.

The Albany Congress- expecting war to break out soon, the British government called a meeting of colonial leaders. The British wanted the colonies to agree to cooperate in defending themselves against the French.

The colonial leaders tried to work out a plan to defend themselves. Ben Franklin published a picture of a snake chopped into pieces with the warning "Join, or Die," and drew up the Albany Plan.

After early British defeats at Fort Duquesne, Fort Niagara, and Lake George, France was defeated.

Under the 1763 Treaty of Paris, Britain and Spain took control of almost all of France's North American possessions.

British Debt- After the end of the war, Britain strengthened its control over the American colonies by imposing a series of new taxes.

Colonists protested Britains actions by boycotting British goods.

Pontiac's Rebellion-Pontiac and his allies attacked British forts and settlements throughout the area.

Britain issued The Proclamation of 1763 to avoid conflict with Native Americans. No one could settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.

Colonists increasingly believed their rights were being threatened. Colonists were loyal subjects; they expected to have the same rights as other

Boston Massacre- British soldiers opened fired in the streets of Boston.

Committees of Correspondence- aimed to keeps colonists informed of British actions.

The Virginia Plan, calling for a strong central government with three branches, formed the basis of the U.S. Constitution.

The Great Compromise set up a Congress with two houses, which pleased both the large and small states.

As part of the compromise that won support of the constitution, northern and southern delegates agreed that each enslaved person would count as three fifthsof a free person.

-Great Compromise (merging of Virginia and New Jersey Plans)

-Separation of Powers (power separated into three branches)

-Checks and Balances (makes sure one branch of government does not become too powerful)

By the early 1800s, a flood of settlers westward helped many territories qualify for statehood.

Better roads and canals further increased the rate of western settlement.

Tensions arose over slavery in the territories, but the Missouri Compromise settled the issue temporarily.

Daniel Boone (Wilderness Road and the Cumberland Gap)

The Republican Party was formed to oppose the spread of slavery.

In the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress could not ban slavery in any territory.

Abraham Lincoln became a central political figure when he and Stephen Douglas debated slavery.

John Brown, an abolitionist, and his followers attacked the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, to protest slavery.

After Lincoln won the presidential election of 1860, some southern states seceded from the Union.

The Civil War began when Confederate troops fired on Fort Sumter.

Election of 1860- Abraham Lincoln becomes President.

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