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Owen’s choice of words in Exposure powerfully, but simply, describes the extremes to which he and his men were exposed for two days. The poem is dominated by words from the semantic field of the weather, most of which are qualified by terms with negative associations:
Owen heightens our awareness of the conditions under which the men suffer by his use of alliteration. further emphasised by his personification of the elements.
The east winds are merciless and icy. The sibilant ‘s’s combined with hard consonants ‘d’ and ‘t’ create a cutting, bitter edge to the elements which ‘knife’ the men, leaving us in no doubt about the pain they intentionally inflict l.1. In l.6 the gusts of wind are personified as mad, their auditory quality conveyed by the short ‘g’ sound of ‘tugging on the wire’, suggesting the catching action. The wind is also human in its indifference, its ‘nonchalance’ in the face of suffering l.19.
In much fiction, the coming of dawn is a motif for the arrival of hope. Here however, ‘Dawn’ only brings another day of ‘poignant misery’ l.11. It is personified as a weary female war commander, ‘massing her melancholy army’ l.13, the alliteration creating a sense of oppression. The ‘army’ of clouds is like German army uniforms and German tanks: ‘grey’, ‘stormy’ and lined up in ‘rank upon shivering rank’, ready to attack.
Owen demonstrates how even the snow-flakes appear to make conscious decisions about where they will settle / whom they will attack - they ‘flock, pause and renew’ l.18 their advance. The flakes have fingers which feel for the faces of the men l.21. Collectively, the wintry elements are as much an enemy on the attack as are the Germans.
As with the opening of the poem, in lines 12-14 Owen again combines sibilance with hard consonants to create a desolate atmosphere, with ‘lasts ’, ‘s oaks ’, ‘clouds s ag st ormy’, ‘mass ing’, ‘east ’, ‘attacks ’, ‘ranks ’ and ‘s hivering’. This continues in the next stanza as:
and the air ‘s hudders ’ with ‘s now’ l.17. Both are ‘deadly’.
Owen juxtaposes the sibilance of the bullets with the light yet lethal ‘f’ sound of the flakes of snow in stanzas four and five. Though gentle, the penetrating cold of the snow sends the men into dazed reveries that also torment them – ‘Sh utt ers and d oors all c losed. on us ’ l.29 – where Owen re-employs the ‘harsh sibilance’ technique.
Owen frequently uses assonance to emphasise the mood of the narrative. In l.11-12, the long ‘oh’ of ‘grow’, ‘only know’ and ‘soaks’ draws out the painful process of the day’s awakening. The same long sounds in l.26 ‘Slowly’, ‘ghosts’, ‘home’ and ‘glozed’ convey the extended effort required by snow-numbed spirits to engage with a world beyond their current environment, such slow reactions being typical of the onset of hypothermia. The effort wasn’t worth it – everything was ‘closed’ l.29.
By contrast, Owen links positive words by an expansive long ‘I’ sound in ‘kind fires’ l.31, ‘smile’ and ‘child’ l.32, for which the men ‘lie’ in their defence l.34.
Like so many of the later poems, Owen’s tone in this poem is one of helplessness and despair. Suffering appears to be pointless.
Owen presents us with a picture of communal endurance and courage. He is one with his men: ‘our brains ache’ l.1, ‘we keep awake’ l.2, ‘we cringe in holes’ l.22. He also shares in his comrades’ dream of home and spirit of self-sacrifice: ‘not loath, we lie out here’ l.34.
Yet he also questions what on earth they are achieving: ‘What are we doing here?’ l.10, ‘Is it that we are dying?’ l.25. Nothing is being achieved by the men’s sacrifice, ‘Nothing happens.’ l.5,15,20,40.
Each of Owen’s eight stanzas ends with a short half line. In the first, third, fourth and final verses Owen creates the burden. ‘But nothing happens’. Each of the short, last lines in the remaining stanzas has a story of its own to tell. When written or read out these lines read:
The first question is answered by the second, which prompts the action of the third. The penultimate verse ends poignantly and perhaps ambiguously. Here on the field of battle the men make Christ -like sacrifices for those they love. Yet Owen suggests the love of God for them, and their faith in God, seems to have died.
Owen’s use of pararhyme is clearly developed in Exposure. The sounds create discord and challenge our expectation, yet Owen uses a regular pattern of ab ba, which creates the sense of stasis. Nothing changes in the rhyming pattern, nothing happens on the front.
Finally the collective pronoun ‘us’ become the eyes of ‘ice’ l.36,39. Notice a half pun within this line: the ‘eyes are ice’ which almost sounds as if each was interchangeable - a symbol of the nihilism of death where everything becomes nothing. The onomatopoeic ‘crisp’ and ‘grasp’ of lines 37 and 38 tell of the final actions of the weather and of the burial party.
Within each stanza, four lengthy lines set the scene and tell what story there is to tell. Often they are hexameter s but Owen frequently adds extra syllables or whole metrical feet. and does not use a consistent metre. perhaps representing how snow-dazed minds struggle to stay orderly.
One short line punctuates the narrative with the reality: ‘but nothing happens’ l.5. This serves as a contrast to the huge events which are to do with ‘dying’: the death of men, of hope, of belief and of the love of God.
Investigating structure and versification in Exposure
A group of words which are connected via their meaning.
Alliteration is a device frequently used in poetry or rhetoric (speech-making) whereby words starting with the same consonant are used in close proximity- e.g. 'fast in fires', 'stars, start'.
A figure of speech where a non-person, for example an animal, the weather, or some inanimate object, is described as if it were a person, being given human qualities.
Motifs are words, phrases or images recurring through a narrative, which have symbolic meaning.
A device similar to alliteration but where the vowel sound in a word is repeated and thus emphasised ' e.g. 'burnt and purged'.
Title (eventually used as name) given to Jesus, refering to an anointed person set apart for a special task such as a king.
The Bible describes God as the unique supreme being, creator and ruler of the universe.
A partial or imperfect rhyme which does not rhyme fully but uses similar rather than identical vowels
A word which suggests the sound it is describing: e.g. 'crackle', 'whisper', 'cuckoo'.
A line of poetry containing six feet or stresses (beats).
The term for units made up of stressed and unstressed syllables
The particular measurement in a line of poetry, determined by the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (in some languages, the pattern of long and short syllables). It is the measured basis of rhythm.